Robert W. Clower, 1926-

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Born in Pullman, Washington, he graduated from Oxford University. His early work at Northwestern University put him in contact with Axel Leijonhufvud, a student at the time (but apparently, Clower was not his mentor). He was later to teach at UCLA (again, with Leijonhufvud) before settling down in South Carolina. Clower's early work on stocks and flows indicated that something was indeed amiss in the orthodox "Neoclassical-Keynesian Synthesis". In 1965, he produced his famous article "The Keynesian Counterrevolution" which underlined the inconsistent manner in which Neoclassical economics and Keynesian theory had been synthesised. He highlighted the absence of a microeconomically-founded Keynesian theory. Among the several resolutions he proposed was a reconstruction of microeconomics to account for the constraints imposed by effective demand - the "Dual Decision Hypothesis". The famous "Clower Constraint" (or "Cash-In-Advance Constraint") was introduced by Clower in 1967 as an expression of the effective demand constraint. The outcome of Clower's theory was a "disequilibrium" approach to a Walras-Keynes synthesis. The work of Axel Leijonhufvud and the early work of Robert Barro employed Clower's approach. The European "Non-Walrasian" school of macroeconomics also formalized and extended several of Clower's propositions.

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